ISSN 2344 – 1283, ISSN CD-ROM 2344 – 1291, ISSN ONLINE 2344 – 1305, ISSN-L 2344 – 1283
 

Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Domantas BRUĆAS, Valentin MIHALCEA

For testing of the geodetic angle measuring instruments, such as theodolites and tacheometers widely implemented in construction engineering, other measuring instruments and devices are used. The errors of these instrumentand devic-es must be also determined and evaluated. Evaluation of the influence of various features of the instruments on the accuracy of measurements allows to eliminate the determined errors or at least to reduce theirinfluence. Such evalua-tion is especially important in the case of precise measurements. However it is also a very complicated task due to the lack of references of the high enough accuracy. In this paper a principle of determination of the influence of angle measuring instruments, such as autocollimators, mirrors and turn tables (used for testing of geodetic instruments), on the accuracy of angle measurements by means of correlation analysis with some practical tests is presented.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Bianca Elena BADULESCU

This paper aims to present the use of 3D GIS for properties inventory and improvement of topographic data for Manastirea town (Calarasi County). The used sources were provided by local authorities and public institutions, and consist of plans and topographic maps, orthophotos and cadastral plans. The data was processed as follows: digitizing maps and data extraction from orthophotos by image interpretation, field data collection, GIS database design and implementation, a 3D analysis and a virtual reality model demonstration. It will be presented the three-dimensional data acquisition and the modeling and reconstruction method for objects with realistic visualization. In conclusion, I wish to demonstrate the applicability of this application in areas such as surveying and architecture, as implemented recalling directions: restitution facades in order to restore the execution of reports architectonics construction and reconstruction of historical monuments or historical monuments initial image with high degree of degradation.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Zsuzsanna BACSO, Alexandra BOLCHIS, Alexandru BURA

According with the theme, the project will include implementation of a geodetic support network using modern geodetic and topographic methods in the Experimental Teaching Resort of UASVM – Cojocna, to locate and monitor various existing and future objectives and analyzing mathematical models used to determine the parameters grid points and positioning precision indices. Also, the network will serve as a geodesic polygon in which students from MTC department will conduct their annual practice. The need for a new geodetic support network in Cojocna Experimental Resort area, with an area of 667.5 hectares, lies in the fact that the point signals from the triangulation network and their terminals, in most of them, were destroyed. Creating the support network through modern methods, targeting global positioning new technologies and advanced instruments that will lead to obtaining high accuracy in point positioning, compared to the old technology and shorten the measurements execution and calculations. In essence, research team aims, after the recognition of the land, to realize location, measurement and processing of functional-stochastic models, to determine the coordinates of the support network points, used delineation and monitoring various objectives of the resort. The project will also include, digital support of the support network, and a comparative study of the accuracy of positioning points obtained by global positioning methods and trilateration method.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Vlad-Cristian TUDOR

The depth aquifer has an important role for ensuring water treatment . In many of these cases abstracted water is loaded with iron compounds , and needing special processes for the treatment. This paper presents the results of water treament from depth drill, loaded with iron compounds using coagulation-flocculation reagents.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Denisa Mihaela GRIGORE

Wastewater treatment plants are important objectives to ensure the quality of sources of water . The paper presents some aspects of determining the time for priming of biological processes in wastewater treatment plants , identification of specific steps and processes priming , reducing costs and to ensure a safe exploitation.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Madalin Ionut COSTINESCU

This article presents a parallel between the two countries in Eastern Europe on organic farming, namely Romania and Serbia. Throughout the paper are developed common elements and differences between the two countries on agricultural areas in the ecological system, certified organic products, their sales markets, the criteria for certification of organic products, associations and representative companies and Swot analysis of each Organic farming. It was analyzed the period from 2000 until present day, during which the concept of organic farming was implemented, becoming more effective by practicing it and by supporting both governments through laws and EU directives. Due to high agricultural potential that both Romania and Serbia have, both countries could become an important source of green products for both the European Union and the world for a long time.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Silviu AUREL

The main objective of this study was to test different methods of analysis and interpretation for satellite images used in the monitoring of natural disasters, i.e. floods, fires and earthquakes. The methods were applied on satellite images acquired by different types of missions in terms of sensor (optical and radar), spatial and spectral resolution. We used optical SPOT images with a spatial resolution of 20 m that are acquired in 3 spectral bands, Landsat images with spatial resolution of 30 m, 7 spectral bands and TerraSAR-X radar images with a resolution of 3 m. The satellite data used in this study consist of: Landsat images downloaded from free online archives (© USGS) as well as SPOT and TerraSAR-X that were provided by the Romanian Space Agency (ROSA ©). In order to obtain optimal results, the most appropriate input data should be represented by: radar images for earthquakes and floods and optical images for fires and floods. The first case study focused on the floods in the Eastern part of Romania, namely the Siret river floods on the Nanesti-Silistea sector in July 2005 and the Prut River floods that took place in late July and early august 2008. The second case study was represented by the forest fires of Corsica, which is the third biggest island in the Mediterranean Sea, located at a distance of 170 kilometers south coast of France and 80 kilometers west coasts of Italy. These fires have occurred in August-September 2003, when 27,335 hectares of vegetation were burnt. The third case study consisted of the Haiti earthquake that occurred on January 12, 2010, at 4:53 p.m. local time. It was a major earthquake with a magnitude of 7.0 on the Richter scale. The epicenter was located near the Port-au-Prince capital. The processing methods (image classification and change detection) were selected and adapted for each type of satellite data. In conclusion, remote sensing is very useful in monitoring the effects of natural disasters. A very important aspect is choosing the optimal data depending on the disaster type (floods and earthquakes – optical and radar, fires – optical). Equally important is the resolution of the images in relation to the investigated phenomenon. For example, in the case of the Haiti earthquake, satellite images with a spatial resolution better than 30 meters would have been more useful.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Dorina Maria VINŢAN

The paper aimed to assess the quality of wastewater resulted from the water treatment plant of a porcelain factory from Alba Iulia. Two of our society’s biggest problems are water pollution and wasteful use of freshwater. Although industry is not the main user of water resources, it is the main responsible for water pollution. Monitoring of porcelain industry wastewater provided the information needed for the identification of water pollution problems. The following water quality indicators have been analyzed: pH, suspended solids, fixed residue, chemical oxygen demand (the dichromate method), calcium and aluminum. During the year 2012, the values of the analyzed indicators didn’t exceed the maximum admitted limits established by NTPA 001, except by suspended solids, which recorded higher values for all analyzed samples. In conclusion, the monitoring of the porcelain industry wastewater revealed the fact that the main pollutant generated by this economic activity is represented by suspended solids, whose removal requires additional water treatment methods.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Andreea Cristina STANCI, Petru Dan COȘARIU

One of the sources of pollution in the Hunedoara is the emisile of particulate on the chimney of CET Mintia and another source is ash resulting from the technological process stored in the cinder and ash deposits. The main purpose of this work is to identify areas affected by pollution produced by CET Mintia through the study of dispersion of atmospheric gases emitted by burning solid fuels and ash particles involved in dross and ash deposits. The main pollutants emitted the chimney are sulphur dioxide, nitrogen dioxide, carbon dioxide and particles of very fine ash. Deposits of dross and ash poses a major risk of radioactive pollution because of the high levels of radioactive elements.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Catalina STAN

One of the products obtained in a wastewater treatment plant is the biogas wich consist in a mixture of biogenic gases resulted from fermentation process of various organic substance. For a wastewater treatment plant the energy obtained in this way is important because is a renewable energy. The installations for biogas production in wastewater treatment plants are a very important component of it.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Bogdan George RUJOI

The study presents the quantity and quality of demolition waste coming from demolition sites in Bucharest. Analyzes of waste were made in order to explore the possibilities of reusing them as components of building materials . It is shown that a large amount of waste from building demolition is a reusable material. Basic oxides of calcium and magnesium in waste can adversely impact soil if deposited directly for a long time, by changing the soil pH and by diluting humus . For a better evaluation of the waste samples, the carbonate concentration was studied. Demolition waste have a large quantity of inorganic components, if the waste is deposited at the limit of the town, it can affect the productive soil for any type of crop by reducing soil fertility. Results demonstrate that the recycling of demolition waste is useful for the construction industry.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Ana-Maria Laura PETRUȚA

Mathematical modeling of water movement and dispersion of pollutants in sewage, is a major environmental problem. Increasing the number of pollutants, concentration, appearance of new compounds with unknown side make this a major issue in the operation of sewer networks. This paper aims to pesente several aspects of the movement of water and pollutants in sewage.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Nicolae OLARU

The paper presents experimental equipment for bulk grain aeration in small farms. The operation of this equipment is based on the kinetically energy produced by pneumatically shock wave. The pneumatically shock waves are produced by short impulses that are discharged into the bulk grain. Due to the impulse sonic velocity the wave energy is able to move large bulk grain quantity, and to realize the bulk material aeration, too. The paper presents the technical possibility to extend this procedure, with adequate equipment for bulk grain aeration in small or larger farms.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Mihai MIREA

The paper presents experimental modular equipment for nutty fruits harvesting in any orchard size. The main part of the equipment consists in pneumatically shock wave generator that realizes short air shock wave that replaces high velocity wind blast. The described procedure is a non-contact method that determines no damage of the tree trunk/ branches (well-known on tree vibration shaking system). The paper presents the technical possibility to extend this procedure, with an adequate equipment adaptation for nutty fruits harvest in small or larger farms.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Cristina ILIE, Iulian Zoltan BOBOESCU, Diana ANDREI

The paper analyzes the status of the water bodies in ROSCI 0226 site-Semenic Cheile Carasului. The analysis was performed according to the criteria for assessing the status of water bodies specified by Water Framework Directive 2000/60/EC.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Gianina DAMIAN, Simona VARVARA, Roxana BOSTAN

Acid mine drainage (AMD) is a widespread environmental problem associated with both working and abandoned mining operations, because it generates acidic solutions containing toxic heavy metal ions, such as Fe2+, Zn2+, Mn2+, Cu2+, Pb2+, which are not biodegradable and tends to accumulate in living organisms causing various diseases. The present study aimed at evaluating the possibility of using two low-cost sorbents, i.e. zeolite volcanic tuff from Rupea (Brasov County, Romania) and peat from “Poiana Stampei” (Suceava County, Romania) in the removal process of the heavy metals (Fe, Zn and Mn) from AMD generated at the abandoned mining perimeter of “Larga de Sus” from Zlatna (Alba County, Romania). The composition of the acid mine drainage from “Larga de Sus” Mine before and after the treatment with natural sorbents was determined by X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy. The removal efficiency of Fe, Zn and Mn from AMD was determined at different doses and grain sizes of the natural zeolite and peat. The preliminary results showed that both sorbents can be used as a low cost alternative in the treatment of AMD.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Robert Cristian SOFRONIE, Constantin ENACHE

The gravity dams are massive constructions, built out of concrete, which counteract the force of water pressure with only action of self-mass. First dam of this type was built around 1220 in Spain, and the building method remained the same until today, the only difference being the building technique and the materials used. The reasons for which the gravity dams need rehabilitation are mainly the time damage and the destructive effects of flash floods and earthquakes effects. Nevertheless, their lifetime can be extended if regular maintenance applied, which most frequently, in the case of cracks presence, it means: waterproofing the fissured areas with epoxy resins, injecting the fissured areas or reinforcing the dam with tension cables in those areas which present horizontal cracks. In the case of Clucereasa’s dam, the deterioration was caused by the extraordinary solicitations of the large quantities of water in transit during the flash floods. This thing leaded to the dilapidation of the dam wall all the way to the armature. These kinds of solicitations, even if they feature a low frequency, have a very important effect upon the built structure. The dam of Clucereasa is a small dam that uses two pumping stations that ensure the water supply for the Dacia-Renault Mioveni car plant and for the city of Mioveni. The dam maintenance was performed over time in acceptable limits and the infiltrations and deformations had remained within reasonable limits, being actually insignificant in case of clogging. For this instance, demolition works of the damaged concrete had been imposed by the usual procedure, followed by the restoration of the wearing concrete at the edge discharge and washing tunnels, reparation with ordinary concrete and the rock-fill embankment of the mobile berm. For the wearing concrete, a type of reinforced disperse concrete was used, having metallic fibers (MFC), obtained by introducing an amount of metallic fibers in the concrete’s composition as being prepared, this way obtaining a much more superior resistance.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Gheorghe FLOREA, Mihai NISTOR, Robert VIRLAN

This paper presents the results of the research that were performed in the Laboratory of Reinforced Concrete, Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering. The studies are based on theoretical aspects of the concrete prism bending resistance determinations. Using static analysis, the formula for bending resistance was determined. In the laboratory, Tests were performed on three standardized test-samples: three prisms made of concrete having the dimensions 150x150x600mm. In the first stage, non-destructive tests were made using the Schmidt sclerometer and the Pundit Lab device. Based on the formula was measured an approximate value of the loading force for which the effort is reaching the corresponding resistance of the concrete rank; this approximate value of the loading force was achieved by nondestructive tests. In the final stage, results validation was performed by effective test on three standardized test-samples concrete prisms. The samples were tested with a bending load up to 250 kN in the SERVO PLUS EVOLUTION universal pressing device. The three tests and the standardized test-samples concrete prisms were performed and made according to the actual Romanian standards.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by George Marian DASCALU, Alex Nicolae VADUVA

Clayey soils are soils with high shrink-swell potential. This soils have the property to significantly modify their volume when moisture changes. The magnitude of dry contraction and moisture swelling increases with the colloidal clay content. Minerals of the kaolinite group are the least active, while the montmorillonites are the most active. As shown by tests, the swelling potential and the plasticity of clays are high in clay of the montmorillonite type (bentonite) and rise with the fine-fraction content.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Marius ANDREI, Andreea ANDRONIC, Florin BITAN, Cristiana NISTOR

The main objective of this study is to determine the unit hydrograph of the Voineşti Basin, located in the north-west of Dâmboviţa county, at the border between the Curvature Sub-Carpathians,GeticSubcarpathians and Getic Plateau. Voinesti Basin shows climatic and hydrological characteristics specific to watershed that favors the production of fast velocity floods. The unit hydrograph is important for: (i) the design of various hydrotehnical constructions and (ii) determination of flooding hydrographs for a given storm data. The applied method statement consists of: (i) separation between direct runoff and the base flow (using a graphical method), (ii) determining the net precipitation, (iii) determining the unit hydrograph ordinates (iii) the selection of unit hydrograph which correspond to a uniform precipitation evenly distributed to basin. The study has been performed based on the analyses of the storm flow events from 1997-1998. The selected hydrograph was the one corresponded to august 2-nd 1997.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by George Narcis PELEA

The paper aims presenting the main steps necessary for compiling the documentation for land improvement design. In the land improvement design are distinguished the following main steps: pre-feasibility study (P.F.S.), feasibility study (F.S.), technical design and execution details (P.T.+ D.E.), technical approval (D.T.), technical documentation for obtaining the construction permit (D.T.A.C.), technical expertise, documentation authorizing work intervention (D.A.L.I.). In the case study we will detail the content of a framework for obtaining the technical approval from A.N.I.F. Timis Agency for land improvement in the Western part of the country.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Elena Daniela ROTARU

The water scheme goal is to provide flood defence and to protect the objectives on the south side of Targu Frumos. In this paper I approach the issues of the optimal choice for an ideal design. This thing was possible by interpreting two solutions, using multi-criteria analysis. Also, I analyzed the aspect of the environmental impact during the execution of the work, as well as during the operation. After calculations, the second scenario is considered to be the optimal, thus solving the flooding problem on the south area of the city.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Şerban Dan ROŞULESCU

Soil degradation in its various forms is a fundamental and persistent problem. The situation in Europe is reflected and amplified in many parts of the world. It is also a matter of global development as land degradation, poverty and migration determine each other, but this is often ignored largely because the observed effects appear gradually. This paper presents forms of land degradation, processes and causes that must be considered to limit the effects of environmental degradation.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Ramona Rafila NICULAE

Long-term global economic growth may not be a realistic target since are not provided the appropriate and available mineral resources, which extraction affects – most often negative – the land surface stability. Therefore, it is necessary to reduce, if not to eliminate, impacts from mining activity through finding solutions based on monitoring the land surface movement. The main goal of the research is to achieve a better prognosis of the phenomenon, to protect the objectives located in the influence area of the underground mining, preventing their destruction.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Nicolae MĂRĂCINE

Deep erosion cause great damage, especially if they occur in areas with human activities. In this case refer this work shows increasing erosion causes, forms and processes of evolution and development techniques.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Daniela ILIE

The paper presents the evolution of Water Quality in Romania during the period 2004-2009 in the Buzau-Ialomita Basin who includes the rivers Buzau, Ialomita, Prahova, Calmatui, Mostistea*. It is based on the statistical data provided by Ministry of Environment and Climate Change. The information has been processed into the following indicators: water quality, phisico-chemical and biological status of water quality, accidental pollution. During the analyzed period, was found an increase in the length of river sections with water quality framed in IIIrd class, but the IVth and the Vth classes have registered an decrease by few percents. The average flow rate taken from 2004 to 2009 has modified in most areas.*distribution according to the National Administration of “Romanian Waters”.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Bogdan DUMITRU, Georgiana BUTUC, Marius GRUIA

In Romania there are yet many old buildings, who have suffered damage during earthquakes in the last century. Securing them is an important issue for the owners and of course for the authorities. The paper analyses the maximum displacements at the top of the structures under seismic actions at different heights. Maximum values are compared with allowable limits specified in current design codes. The study was conducted for RC frame structures with different heights. As a novelty authors used as entry data for structural modelling, the resulting values from the non-destructive tests on concrete and reinforced concrete samples. In the first part of this study relative positions of the two intrinsic centers, CG and CR, were calculated. Then, RC frame structures that have the same shape in plan, but different heights were modelled using Autodesk Robot structural analysis program. Because the maximum amplification was at the largest structure height, the second part of the study was to determine the displacement for structures with the same height but different shape in plan. In conclusion, the paper emphasises the influence of the height regime on the displacement at the top of the building and irregularities that influence on the same phenomenon. The results are conclusive and are discussed both on the charts and analytical results obtained. The activities of this research were conducted under the supervision of Mr. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR, Lecturer in the Department of Environment and Land Reclamation at the Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering of Bucharest.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Neculai DOGARU

The vast majority of rural economic activities are conducted under the direct effect of environmental conditions outdoors, where climate variability influences physiological processes of plants and growth animals conditions as those involved in development work such economic processes. Extreme weather events such as droughts, torrential rains, land degradation and soil assets fall into the category risk natural hazards expose human values. Trends in climate Cris basin is based on the main elements of weather observations recorded at the meteorological station Oradea, as well as data collected from various specialized archives. Elements established a specialized data base were processed by different methodologies.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Adrian COCOCEANU

The purpose of this paper is to obtain results through analytical modeling and physical behavior of pressure systems under transitory flow. Complexity of water flow, hypothesis and limitations of different equations governing the motion are studied by analysis using specialized software packages and validate the results obtained by measurements on experimental stands that shapet the physical phenomenon.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Leontin VISINESCU BRINZEA

Natural potential of an area determine its readiness to develop in sustainable conditions, is the basis of economic processes in rural areas. The study shows favorable conditions for agriculture are necessary to determine the extent to which each factor limiting agricultural productivity and natural supports.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Catalin BOTEA, Ramona PIRLOG, Ioan MARGARINT

The paper deals with non-destructive methods for determination of physical and mechanical characteristics of concrete specimens. The devices used for these determinations as Pundit Lab and Hammer Digi-Schmidt are in according with European and Romanian norms. The Pundit Lab is an ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) test instrument which is used to examine the quality of concrete. It features online data acquisition, waveform analysis and full remote control of all transmission parameters. The Schmidt Hammer Digi-Schmidt was developed for the non-destructive measurement of the concrete compressive strength and controlling the uniform concrete quality. The authors emphasizes that the use of non-destructive testing provides plausible values on compressive strength of concrete specimens. This statement is proved by results obtained from tests according to SR EN 12390-3: Testing hardened concrete - Part 3: Compressive strength of test specimens. For experimental determinations presented in this paper the devices belong of Concrete Laboratory of Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty were used.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by COMPLEX PLANNING SOLUTIONS FOR SOIL EROSION CONTROL ON A VINEYARD

The paper aims to present the complex planning solutions for soil erosion control on a given vineyard with a surface of 52 hectares, being located in the Ialomita River watershed, Ceptura area, Prahova County in Romania. Such solutions are based on the processing statistical data provided by Ploiesti Meteorological Station and Climatologically Atlas of Romania as well as on the computed soil loss by using Romanian soil erosion model. Data collected have been consisting into average annual precipitation, annual temperature and annual soil loss for the studied perimeter. The paper contains a descriptive memorandum concerning site description, current soil degradation and management situation, natural environment, needs and opportunities for designing the anti-erosion system, specific anti-erosion measures and works for vineyard. As a conclusion, the paper provides data about technical efficiency of designed measures and works as well as the answer of why these measures should be applied before arranging a vineyard.

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Published in Journal of Young Scientist, Vol.I
Written by Maria-Alexandra ARTAN, Mircea HAS, Elena-Daniela PANTEA, Ana PETRIŞOR, Ana Nicoleta POPESCU

The evapotranspiration is one of the components of hydrological cycle. This element is essential in calculus of hydrological water balance, design water works, determination of climate change, water resources planning and management. The aim of this study is to analyze the measured and estimated evapotranspiration at a station in Constanta. In order to estimate the evapotranspiration four methods were used: Thornthwaite, Hargreaves, Turc and Priestley and Taylor. The results of these equations were compared with observed evaporation. We used the data recorded in the interval of time 1970-1995. For these years, we were given: the annual medium temperatures and the monthly measured evapotranspiration.

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