ISSN 2344 – 1283, ISSN CD-ROM 2344 – 1291, ISSN ONLINE 2344 – 1305, ISSN-L 2344 – 1283
 

Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 4
Written by Ewelina WERNER

A solar cadastre is also called as a roof cadastre or a solar potential map. This solution is to provide a geo-portal for potential users, which allows to define potential of solar energy for specific locations. It is based on a Digital Terrain Model and climate information available for this area. This kind of geoportals are made mainly as an initiative of the local government of the city. The aim is to increase public awareness of the advantages of using solar energy. Analysis of sunlight and solar potential maps can be used in various fields (like civil engineering, energy engineering and spatial planning) and stage of investment. These systems should be user-friendly, ie they should clearly show the information about the energy potential of the location and facilitate decision-making in investment in solar collectors. The aim of project was to analyse the available methods, which allow to determine the value of solar potential for the area (roof of the building) from DTM and energy possible to obtain from this area. The project shows examples of different models of the solar cadastre available to users of the world and their use. Selected solar cadastre maps available to users on the Internet since 2008 have been analysed. Then the maps were compared in terms of their usability and usefulness of the work related to spatial planning. The results will be used to create a solar cadastre concept in Poland.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 4
Written by Ewelina WERNER

The aim of the study is to show the methods of determining the borders of cultivated land and show problems during the update of their status. The current surface of cultivated land is necessary to be known in detail for calculating the exact amount of taxes and subsidies of agricultural land.Discrepancies in the measurements as well as in the use of outdated data can lead to errors in the methods of calculation. The study compared two methods based on differences in determining the land. GPS measurements and the results obtained from orthophotomap were used. The study used agricultural parcels in the possession of the Wroclaw University of Environmental and Life Sciences in Lower Silesia. The research has shown differences in the determination of land borders by using different methods and sources of measurement.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Silviu BADEA, Andrei Liviu CHIRITA, Cristian ANDRONE, Bianca Georgiana OLARU

The aim of this study was to evaluate indoor-air microbiological contamination of the Land Reclamation and Environmental Engineering Faculty building from Bucharest. Samples were taken in May 2014, during both period of intense indoor activity (in the afternoon classes) and less indoor activity (during weekends). Total number of mesophilic aerobic bacteria, yeast and moulds from the air of selected rooms was determined using Koch sedimentation method. We used Petri plates filled with gelose medium to determine the total number of bacteria and Czapek-Dox Agar medium for the filamentous fungi identification. In many cases, a multiple growth bacteria and significant increase of filamentous fungi were observed, especially during intense indoor activity period. According to the standards of microbial air loading, the indoor air of the faculty is relatively clean.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Oana BANU, Diana GORGHIU

The farming and ranching industries are undergoing a transformation, with innovative technologies being developed to improve the way agricultural enterprises are managed. Over the course of the last two years, a number of agriculture apps have been introduced with features like field mapping, planting calculations, spray logs and soil sampling tools.Precision Agriculture has evolved from a concept a half a decade ago into an emerging technology today.With an ever growing world population subject to famine, natural disasters, disease and conflict, changes must be made in agriculture to meet world concerns while remaining committed to sustaining the natural resources need for future production. Precision Agriculture is often described as the next great evolution in agriculture.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Claudiu Ovidiu BARBULESCU, Vlad Gabriel CODESCU

The farming and ranching industries are undergoing a transformation, with innovative technologies being developed to improve the way agricultural enterprises are managed. Over the course of the last two years, a number of agriculture apps have been introduced with features like field mapping, planting calculations, spray logs and soil sampling tools.Precision Agriculture has evolved from a concept a half a decade ago into an emerging technology today.With an ever growing world population subject to famine, natural disasters, disease and conflict, changes must be made in agriculture to meet world concerns while remaining committed to sustaining the natural resources need for future production. Precision Agriculture is often described as the next great evolution in agriculture.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Mihai FRINCU, Corina DUMITRACHE, Andrei Cristian DUMITRIU

The aim of this paper was to evaluate the water quality of the pond from Dendrological Park of our university. In this respect we used physical, chemical and microbiological analysis indicators, according to the Water Framework Directive (2000 /60 / EC). The physico-chemical parameters that we determined were: temperature, turbidity, electrical conductivity, pH and oxygen regime. Microbiological analyzes were performed to determine both the total counts of mezophilic bacteria ( which grow at 22 0C and 37 0C) and the presence of Enterobacteriaceae, especially E. coli (grow on specific medium at 37 0C). Monitoring of all parameters was carried out between July 2014 - March 2015. The results indicate low levels of alterations caused by human action and deviate only slightly from normal.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Mihai FRINCU, Corina DUMITRACHE, Andrei Cristian DUMITRIU

Soil is an important component of all terrestrial ecosystems as well as fundamental resource in the agricultural production system that why monitoring of soil fertility is an important objective for the sustainable agro-ecosystems development. Changes in its physical, chemical and biological properties must be taken into account, in order to evaluate soil fertility. Biological indicators are suitable tools for predicting and assessing soil changes that are caused by both natural and anthropogenic factors. Among the biological features, soil enzymes are often used as indicator of soil fertility because they are very sensitive and respond to changes in soil management more quickly than other soil variables. In this respect, the objective of this paper was to determine enzyme activity of the soil from USAMV – Bucharest orchard in order to evaluate its fertility.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Iulia Diana GLIGA, Madalina PRESECAN

The aim of this study is to determine the ecotop parameters used for restoration of degraded lands, which are not recommended to other uses. Afforestation reduces the extreme values of climatic factors (temperature, Evapotranspiration, wind speed): improves the air humidity and soil moister; and favors site conditions for maintaining herbaceous and forestry vegetation development. The decreasing of land degradation and the gradually restoration of productive capacity under the direct effect of forest cultures could be analyzed by variation of precipitation retention by canopy. The results regarding canopy retentions were obtained by placing in situ several rain gauges with height of 25 cm and 100 cm2. The precipitations retentions by canopy values were computed by the difference between the amount of rainfall recorded in open grounds and average values recorded at rain gauge installed in land cover with trees (in forest). Rains were grouped into classes, and the rainfall for each class being calculated as mean value of precipitation retained. The data obtained were highlighted with correlation between rainfall inside the forest and rainfall outside the forest. The curves of retention in the canopy layer were plot according to the height of rainfall and some characteristics of trees (species, age, consistency).The frequency of days with precipitation ranged from one month to another and from one season to another. The data set analyzed showed that rainfall triggered surface runoffs in seven day (5% of the total days computed). The slope of regression between monthly average rainfall index and the amount of rainfall previously recorded expresses an increase from a drought year to a rainy year. The average rainfalls per square meter inside the stand increased with the amount of rainfall quatity, the highest values were registered over 70 mm. Maximum discharge coefficients, determined by class of precipitation, highlighted the influence upon runoffs: the maximum value (0,219) being achieved by precipitation from 0 to 10 mm, although the maximum rainfall is obtained in the precipitation of more than 50 mm. Based on the computed data were determined regression equations between the runoffs amount and precipitation quantity, also, between rainfalls quantity and standard deviation of previous monthly.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Eren KARAKAVUZ

Air pollution by aerosol particles was evaluated in a site near BulentEcevitUniversityFarabi Campus in Zonguldak, TURKEY. The location was influenced by both road traffic emissions and domestic heating emissions. The experiment was done on January, 2015. Eight stage non-viable Andersen cascade ımpactor was used in the experiment. Collected particles were weighted and total particulate matter concentration was calculated 143g/m3 which is acceppted as “critical” in air pollution control regulations in TURKEY. Eight stage values were converted to PM10, PM2.5 and PM1 values. Aim of the work was to estimate the effect of airborne particles on human health. Collected particle

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Paul MARGINAS, Ervin SCHLESINGER

This project contains the designing of a precast reinforced concrete bridge on main forest road "Valea Rosie", km 1+110. The bridge will be sized for 2nd category of loading (according to STAS 3221-74) and it will be designed with one lane. The hydraulic capacity was determined after the flow hazard and river geomorphology. .It is necessary to size the main beams of the bridge to support the load, the bending moments and the oblique section of them. The deck size must be calculated to resist its own weight and the layers above it. There are differences between beam and deck design; the load being the common factor design for both. The final phase consists of predimensioning, designing and verification of abutment. The design process ends with determining optimal size in correlation with service the bridge is expected to provide.This project contains the designing of a precast reinforced concrete bridge on the "Valea Rosie" main forest road, km 1+110. The bridge will be sized for 2nd category of loading (according to STAS 3221-74) and it will be designed with one lane. The hydraulic capacity was determined based on the flow hazard and river geomorphology. It is necessary to size the main beams of the bridge so as to support the load, the bending moments and their oblique section. The deck size must be calculated to resist its own weight and the layers above it. There are differences between beam and deck design, the load being the common factor design for both. The final phase consists of predimensioning, designing and verification of abutment. The design process ends with determining the optimal size in correlation with service the bridge is expected to provide.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Dorin TATARU, Andreea STANCI

Through exploitation the coal are brought to the surface some of the radioactive elements in the earth's crust. Coal used in the process of Thermo-electric power station (CET) Paroseni produce from burning slag and ash, which is deposited in the Valley Caprisoara. It is known that, radioactive elements in the coal not burn and not oxidize, so that radioactive waste of ash is more concentrated. In this paper we propose to determine the distribution of radionuclides in ash and slag in deposits and surrounding areas. These measurements are necessary because the nature and energy of radiation emitted are conditional of ways the irradiation of organisms.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Cristina Iuliana TOMA

The present article is meant as a detailed presentation of the problems which can occur in the conversion of military sites into other centres, through entrepreneurship. The area looked into is located in Rimnicu Vilcea, where the University of Pitesti, after taking over a part of the original area, carries out some of its activities. This study is meant to be a criterion for sustainable development ,namely environmental, landscape restoration proposed by contributing to environmental quality improvement and pollution sources reduction by removing the aspect of "vacant land", degraded and untidy. The studied area has a surface area of 72820 square metres and there are 23 buildings on it. The land measurements have been made with specific topographic equipment: GPS SOUTH S86-T and Pentax total station W- 822NX, using RTK-kinematic method. The planimetric coordinate values have been registered for each point in the 70’s Stereo System. In order to identify the species of trees and shrubs resistant to environment and microclimate conditions, a small dendrologic study has been made. The plants have been planted as naturally as possible in order to fix the soil and to create a show of vegetation through foliage, colour and fragrance. Thanks to the chromatic change of the foliage, the thickness and transparency of the crown, the varied forms and volumes, the vegetation will ensure the variety of the lanscape, making the area more alive.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Alikemal TOPALOGLU

The recent studies regarding the membrane technologies indicate that the membrane process applications involve for providing the high quality drinking water and increasing the use of industrial water consumption. The membrane process has been used in applications such as wastewater treatment, industrial water production, water softening, and in the separation of compounds having different molecular weights. Of using in many membrane process Microfiltration (MF) and Ultra filtration (UF) are low pressure filtration processes that are used for pathogen and suspended solids removal as seen in many studies (Guo et al., 2010; Yang et al., 2014). In this study, we investigated the possibility of using microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) membrane systems for treatment of wastewater generated from underground hard coal mining of Kozlu Basin. In first stage of this study, the wastewater was treated using MF membrane filtration system. The MF membrane filtration system was composed of the flat sheet MF membrane module equipped with Polivinilflorid (PVDF) membranes purchased from MICRODYN-NADIR membranes, Germany. The MF membrane has a filter area of 140 cm2 and average pore diameter of 0.2 μm as given by supplier. In second stage of study, the effluents of MF were treated using UF membrane filtration. The UF membrane filtration system was composed of the flat sheet UF membrane module equipped with Polyethersulfone (PESH) membranes purchased from MICRODYN-NADIR membranes, Germany. The UF membrane has a filter area of 140 cm2 and molecular weight cut-offs (MWCOs) of 50 KDa as given by supplier. In the experimental study, the raw water was provided from discharge point of underground hard coal mining of Kozlu Basin. In order to determine the total treatment performance of the MF/UF system, water samples were taken from inlets and outlets of the MF and UF membrane systems, respectively. The pressures were fixed at 1 and 2.5 bars for MF and UF, respectively during the experimental study. In test of wastewater, total coliform, turbidity, conductivity, pH, nitrite, nitrate, phosphate, sulphate, sodium, potassium, chemical oxygen demand (COD), total suspended solids (TSS), calcium, magnesium and total hardness as parameters were analysed in raw and treated water. The results were compared with Turkish Standards (TS 266) and European Union (EC).

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Adela Eleonora VISAN, Mihaela RADU, Emine ISMAIL

As known, nowadays we are facing new ecological pressures, when land, water and clean air are not anymore regarded as infinite resources. As an example, in Bucharest, the current urban sprawl has begun to destroy the most valuable land and open-space resources. All along the Colentina river there is an impressive potential of creating green areas, but also new dwellings combined with peri-urban agriculture, not forgetting about heritage. All the 13 lakes have their own identities, but which are not fully taken care of. It can easily be noticed the lack of management of these lakes- the shores are in a bad condition, inaccessible, the water is far from being clean and, what is more, water pollution happens without any refrain. What we suggest is to design cycle tracks, walking paths, beach areas, sportive areas, decks, restaurants, greenways, community gardens, agricultural areas, all intelligently integrated in a econeighbourhood along Grivita lake. Also, reinforcing the shores and reassuring the continuity of the existing ecosystems are important aspects of our project. All in all, our aim is to tackle the social, economical and ecological issues all together. This would mean to rise the quality of living in the peripheral areas of Bucharest, create social mixity and also encourage the small commerce which is an extremely important aspect for the community

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Stefan Silvian CIOBANU

Collapsibility of the loess is strongly governed by water content and the magnitude of applied stress. Under an increasing load, the critical pressure at which collapse started to occur was greater for the loess with lower water content. At natural water content the critical pressure was greater than the overburden pressure. The greatest problem with collapsible soils arises when the existence and extent of the collapse potential are not recognized prior to construction. Settlements associated with development on untreated collapsible soils usually lead to expensive repairs. A comparative study between natural undisturbed and compacted samples of collapsible soils was performed. An attempt was made to relate the collapse potential to the initial moisture content.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Simona SBURATURA, Mihai Cristian MUSCALU, Ancuta BODIRLAU

In all seismic areas, local and state officials and prudent property owner, establish procedures to assess the safety of buildings and other important structures following a main seismic event. Such decisions, in most cases, are based on visual inspections of possible damage to the structure. If the structure appears damaged, it is necessary to further examine and assess as to whether the damage condition of the structure presents an unsafe environment for the occupants of that structure. If available, instrumental measurements of shaking of a building or a nearby ground site are very useful to decision makers. In this sense the paper present a method to assess the building safety of Reinforced Concrete structures using seismic records made by seismic station. Both dynamic analysis and processing/recording of seismic events are made using modern techniques and equipment existent in Reinforced Concrete Laboratory. Mention that seismic equipment for strong motion records belongs National Seismic Network for Construction of National Institute for Research and Development in Construction, Urban Planning and Sustainable Spatial Development.„URBAN-INCERC”, and equipment was installed here on the base of cooperation protocol signed by the two institutions. The paper results are conclusive and are discussed both on the charts and analytical results obtained. The activities of this research were conducted under the supervision of PhD. Claudiu-Sorin DRAGOMIR, Lecturer in the Department of Environment and Land Reclamation at the Faculty of Land Reclamation and Environment Engineering Faculty in Bucharest in Bucharest.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Adina CIOBANESCU, Georgiana DONE

The problem of wastewater treatment is an important issue for environmental protection. Businesses with different specific according to the law are required to carry wastewater treatment products. In the meat preparation units appear special problems . The case study shows solutions for removing nitrogen and phosphorus from meat preparation units and cold storage- Mogosoaia.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Iuliana Andreea APOSTU

This paper aims to present how 3D modeling technique based on digital images demonstrates usefulness of photogrammetry and accurate 3D visualization of real object that presents regular shapes (buildings, monuments, artifacts). The 3D model of a building facade has been obtained using Agisoft Photoscan software using two photos and the accuracy of this model is less than one pixel. We can also made a 3D analysing on the model. Totally automated workflow provides the ability to process images without advanced knowledge of modeling or processing thousands of aerial or terrestrial images. The importance of this aplication reflects the accesibility of this software that can process photos captured with a resonable camera using in fact a „low-cost” photogrametric technology, the photogrammetry becoming the best alternative of standard measuring techniques.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Andrei ARMAS, Ovidiu Stefan CUZIC

The paper aimed to present the organization of immovable property registering process encompassed in cadastral works made in Republic of Moldova. It is based on the 828-XII / 25.12.1991 law from Moldova's land code especially on the 12th and 13th articles. The four main registering categories are divided into primary, selective, massive and current recording of immovable property followed up by the principles and objectives of the registering process. An illustration of a primary massive registration of a field acquired under the law reveals a chain of certain particularities concerning content of immovable property, manner of acquiring the property and method of organization of registering process. Acquiring the property rights under the law has its own particularities as well. Further on, the 12th article provides that a committee is gathered in order to establish the various social categories of people that are entitled to receive land as owners whereas actual ascription of property is regulated by the 13th article, both of them assuring the legal foundation on which the right of property is formed. As a conclusion, the forming of immovable property implies the materialization of the right acquired under the 12th article of the land code. Moreover, the 12th article provides a rights authentication title for the land owner issued by central and local authorities.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Alina BALAN, Grigoras Mihnea GINGIOVEANU-LUPULESCU

The paper aimed to present the organization of immovable property registering process encompassed in cadastral works made in Republic of Moldova. It is based oIn this paper we aime to show the benefits of presenting and analyzing a certain topic using GIS , presentation which provides a good help for the people in charge of deciding something important. In our case , a company wants to offer the employees a small trip somewhere in a mountain resort where they can improve their skills of working as a team and create a closer connection between them . The company has a few options but it’s hard to make a choice for a certain destination, so someone decides to make a StoryMap which can be shown to the employees and to the people responsible for deciding the destination in order for them to choose the best option. The same method can be used for choosing an adecvate location when a company wants to expand or someone wants to open a new store. GIS can be used for any study or observation related to the location of something , having a large field of application . In our paper we will analyze a few possible mountain destinations in terms of which one has the most ski slopes, which one offers the best possibilities for accommodation and which one has the best location from a geographical point of view. There will also be a short presentation of each mountain resort containing some pictures from the resort and possibly even some live images from the ski slopes , so the people in charge of making the decision will be very well informed about each possible destination. In parallel with this StoryMap we will also locate the respective places in a 3D scene, wich will increase the understanding of the geographical location for that area. As a conclusion, this paper aims to show the benefits of using GIS in order to make the best decisions.n the 828-XII / 25.12.1991 law from Moldova's land code especially on the 12th and 13th articles. The four main registering categories are divided into primary, selective, massive and current recording of immovable property followed up by the principles and objectives of the registering process. An illustration of a primary massive registration of a field acquired under the law reveals a chain of certain particularities concerning content of immovable property, manner of acquiring the property and method of organization of registering process. Acquiring the property rights under the law has its own particularities as well. Further on, the 12th article provides that a committee is gathered in order to establish the various social categories of people that are entitled to receive land as owners whereas actual ascription of property is regulated by the 13th article, both of them assuring the legal foundation on which the right of property is formed. As a conclusion, the forming of immovable property implies the materialization of the right acquired under the 12th article of the land code. Moreover, the 12th article provides a rights authentication title for the land owner issued by central and local authorities.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Dorinuta BESA, Adina Mihaela MORAR, Nicoleta Alina MURESAN

The following paper regards the creation of the digital plan necessary for the design and trace of a construction situated in the town of Colibita, in the Bistrita-Nasaud county. Further, the paper presents the methods of tracing and the study of accuracy in regards to the transposition on terrain of the projected objective. The methods used for drawing in a plan of the projected points of a construction results combining topographic mapping elements (angles and horizontal distances) and deploys according of well defined procedures. Before starting a construction, first you should realize the preparing of terrain by topographical point of view. This fact consists of an ensemble of operations made at office for making the construction at that terrain. For drawing of the projected elements, polar coordinates method has been chosen. This is the most used method of drawing, it is used for drawing on the terrain of project points in case if exists a drawing base or a drawing network, a poligonometric network, a topographic construction network.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Dumitru Lucian BLAGESCU, Ionut Alexandru BATRANACHE

As the European GNSS Agency (GSA) is emphasizing its efforts in implementing EGNOS based operations in various domains, such as maritime navigation or precision farming, and as the European Commission (EC) is considering extending the EGNOS coverage to Eastern Europe, it becomes demanding to start using EGNOS at national level. A first step in such direction is decoding the transmitted messages. This paper presents a MATLAB approach of decoding different EGNOS messages types and extracting the necessary information for computing the protection levels. In order to test the decoded messages, the European Space Agency’s SBAS Teacher tool will be used for comparison

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Alina BUZILA, Bogdan Ioan CIOBAN, Marcela Ionela HANDRO, Adrian Serban PETRIC

The purpose of this paper is to present the methods of solving the basic geodetic problems. Taking advantage of numerical integration, we solve the direct and inverse geodetic problems on the ellipsoid. In general, the solutions are composed of a strict solution for the sphere plus a correction to the ellipsoid determined by numerical integration. The problems in geodesy are usually reduced to two main cases: the direct problem, given a starting point and an initial heading, find the position after traveling a certain distance along the geodesic; and the inverse problem, given two points on the ellipsoid find the connecting geodesic and hence the shortest distance between them. Much of the early work on these problems was carried out by mathematicians—for example, Legendre, Bessel, and Gauss—who were also heavily involved in the practical aspects of surveying. If the Earth is treated as a sphere, the geodesics are great circles (all of which are closed) and the problems reduce to ones inspherical trigonometry. For a sphere the solutions to these problems are simple exercises in spherical trigonometry, whose solution is given by formulas for solving a spherical triangle.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Ionut CAMPIAN, Tudor Alexandru FLOREA, Tania VRANCEANU, Mircea VUSCAN

The first step to be run as part of the compensation is to determine preliminary coordinates. They are determined with a precision low accuracy generally depends on the purpose and length of the sides of the network considered. Because the projection system used officially in Romania is 1970 stereographic system for processing observations is usually a two-dimensional system still will consider that this plan is the reference surface which will reduce geodetic observations. If the geodesic network of the distance measurements were made, to be reduced from the reference surface selected. After being corrected physical (generally modern tools to measure distances apply this correction automatically) distances measured to be applied, in order, the following discounts: Reducing the chord; Reduction of the reference ellipsoid surface; Reduction plan stereographic projection in 1970.This stage of preliminary processing geodetic observations and reduction in the chosen reference surface is considered performed by the user, for which the program will be introduced reduced to the reference surface observations.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Razvan Alex CIORBA, Radu Alexandru CRETU, Mircea Emil NAP, Andreea Carmen ZAGOR

The object of our study is the spherical excess and the national geodetic network for the city of Cluj-Napoca. As a proof of the earth's rotundity, many place great reliance upon what is called the "spherical excess," which has been observed on making trigonometric observations on a large scale. The angles taken between any three points on the surface of the earth by the theodolite are, strictly speaking, spherical angles, and their sum must exceed 180 degrees; and the lines bounding them are not the chords as they should be, but the tangents to the earth. This excess is inappreciable in common cases, but in the larger triangles it becomes necessary to allow for it, and to diminish each of the angles of the observed triangle by one-third of the spherical excess. In other words, the spherical excess is represented by the difference between the sum of the angles of a spherical triangle and the sum of the angles of a plane triangle. The national geodetic network and the triangulation network represent the fixed points which form the base of all leveling procedures. Considering the distance between the points and the measurements accuracy, the points that form the geodetic network are classified in five categories: first order: the points are situated between 20-60 km, average 30 km, second order: the tips of the triangles are intercalated in the points of first order at distances between 10-20 km, average 15km,third order: the points are situated inside of the triangles of the second order at distances between 5-10 km, average 7 km, forth order: the points are situated inside of the triangles of the third order at the average distance of 3 km, fifth order: the points are situated inside of the triangles of the forth order at the average distance of 1.5 km. In our project we are using the points of the third order to determine the spherical excess in the city of Cluj-Napoca.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Alexandra Maria DAMIAN, Andreea Maria STANCU

In this presentation we try to make a parallel in terms of systematic and sporadic land registration forthree European countries. The countries that we have chosen are England, the Netherlands and Romania. We will discuss about a short history of cadastre, important laws governing land registration, the types of cadastre, the institutions responsible for cadastre in each country and the benefits of land registration.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Andrei Georgian DRAGHICI, Ioana VATRA

The paper aims to present the evolution of higher education during the period between 2004-2014 in County Ialomita, including the towns of Slobozia, Urziceni, Fetesti, Tandarei, Cazanest and Armasesti . It is based on the statistical data provided by the Ministry of Education and Research. During the analyses period, the percent of graduation of the baccalaureate exams has continuously decreased, so that in the year 2004 83,92% of the students had promoted the baccalaureate exams, while in 2014 only 57,06% did.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Alina DUMITRU, Andra Maria DINOIU

The main objective of the project is estimating deformations of Giurgiu-Russe bridge superstructure using analytical photogrammetry. The results of the observations help us to establish what is the deformations state of the bridge, and what kind of subsides can appear over the years. There are two methods for measurement of the subsides through photogrammetry: main time base and main real space base. Measurements were realized using a terrestrial photogrammetric camera UMK 10/1318 and digital processing was achieved using the relationships of the parallax differences in every superstructure pursuit mark.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Mihnea Mircea MITRACHE, Georgiana Maria MOTOI, Oana PIELESTEANU

In this paper we approach the study of tectonic plates, their classification according to their size and phenomena that occur due to movement of tectonic plates. In the content, there is also presented how they formed faults and the classification according to their geometry and genetic. We follow Vrancea's fault behavior through displacements and deformations that occur over time. This study is conducted by placing the parts in strategic objectives, monitoring benchmarks in time through leveling method of geometric means of order 0.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Teodora MOTOCESCU, Alexandru MIHALCEA, Dragos DRAGANESCU, Dan MOCANU

In this paper we want to capture the unseen part of Romanian tourism.The haunted places that we are going totalkabout,were less publicized and placed in tourist routes,they dating since 13th century. These places belong to the natural environment(forests,hills,ponds) and constructions(castels,monasteries,hotelsetc). Due to less developed infrastructure,theromanian tourism suffers,occupying a slacker place between tourist countries in Europe. Bran Castle is the most visited haunted place in Romania stepping his threshold in 2014 over 560.000 tourists,of which 60% are foreigners. At the opposite is Fire Tower from Bucharest;this museum having no part of so many visitors.However,through this presentations we wish to draw the attention to the willing persons who want to discover something new.In conclusion at this chapter,Romania can be considered a rival.The method by which we want to make known this tourist route is by a StoryMap from ArcGIS Online(www.arcgis.com). In this StoryMap you will find information about address,directions,photos and a short history.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Rares Catalin OROS, Diana Ioana PLOSCARIU, Razvan Casian REBREAN, Vasile Beniamin TOLOMEIU

This paper aims to present a comparative analysis regarding the accuracy determination of a point, using the linear intersection method and multiple combined intersections method. To determine the coordinates of the new points we always measure a much higher number of directions than we need.Those directions helps to discover measurements errors, a better precision.Before definitive calculations of network points, there will be made some compensations with the purpose to determine each point one time with a higher probability of it’s coordinates value.Higher order triangulation networks are compensated by rigorous methods namely:indirect measurements method and conditionated measurements method.Wichever method of compensation applied, before compensation is introduced in the calculation direction measurements are being checked on the field, are reduced to the center of points and are also reduced in Gauss or Stereografic projection plan.By solving the triangulation networks aimed at inducing the plane coordinates of geodetic points, using known quantities of plane coordinates geodetic points and connecting lines between geodetic points.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Gratiela PASCAL, Ioana Georgiana TEPUS, Anamaria Catalina SALE, Raluca Elena TAUTU

Projection of topographic elements from the topographic surface on the reference surface is a very important operation necessary because the field observations are reported at the geoid vertical by the position of the plumb line, while the calculus are performed on ellipsoid after the instrumental observation were projected on the reference ellipsoid after the normal direction to the ellipsoid. For the correction calculus of reduction on ellipsoid of geodetic observation is necessary the preliminary determination of the ,,N” geoid undulation and the deviation components of vertical line. There are several methods in which we can bring geodetic points of the topographic surface to the reference surface. Some of the methods are: the design method, the development method, the Pizzetti method, the Bruns-Helmert method.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Claudia PRAJANU

The paper aims to identify and analyse factors that affect the precision of determination in the horizontal plane of points, located within a larger forest area in Brasov county.For this purpose 2704 point where measured using a GPS equipment. The precision of such measurements is affected by a series of factors like the forest canopy and the terrain orography. The coordinates of the points were obtained using the semi-kinematic method, Stop&Go with postprocessing, which has an average precision, acceptable in this field. The points were then grouped according to the following criteria: localization, forest formation, orography, exhibition (S-N, E-V), forest consistency (<0.7, 0.7-0.8, 0.9-1.0), tree age (21-40 years, 41-60 years, 61-80 years, 81-100 years, >100 years).The points have been processed using software AutoCAD Map 3D and specific modules of ArcGIS. Data have been processed using a statistical program, Statistica 8.0. The distributions were analysed using several statistical indicators (maximum, minimum, mean, standard error of mean, mode, frequency of mode, standard deviation, coefficient of variation).Accuracies obtained were analyzed both for each category as well as for combinations of 2, 3 and 4 factors.After analysing all the results obtained, it can be expressed the idea that, on the whole, the accuracy of determining the point coordinates in forest lands is relatively good and that there are rare cases where exaggerated values are obtained.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Codruța Rozica SILVASANPASCA, Simona Lenuta MLESNITE

The study was realised having purpose to make the topographical measurements in view of determining the geometrical dimensions and the geometrical deviations of the tank for rating his technical condition. First of all we made the recognition of the placing area of the tank subjected to determinations and in the same time the visual inspection was made and were determined a number of 16 stationary points . For the field work were used full stations and GNSS receptors. The geometrical dimensions and the geometrical deviations of the bottom of the thank were determined by inside measurements from one stationary point . The measurements processing was made with specialized programs from my own equipment. The results of the measurements regarding the geometrical dimensions and the shape deviations of the tank have been submitted in specialised statements provided by the beneficiary.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Raluca Veronica SERBAN

In this work it is desirable to show legal and technical aspects of extension of the water network in the town Holbav, Brașov county. Having regard to geographicalpositioning and orographic for the locality, legal aspects of this work aimed at removing some land areas of forest fund.To perform the measurements necessary to project the extending the network of water use has been made of a total station SOKKIA and apparatus GNSS. Total station was used in carrying out the lift network, being a network supported on known points.GNSS equipment has been used in determining the points station using their positioning by process static and the procedure Real Time Kinematics (RTK). On this occasion shall be investigated and process accuracy Real Time Kinematics (RTK) for the forestry sector and the factors that influence the accuracy. In the work of extending the network of water in this town Holbav, Brasov county desired positioning of a new water basin at an altitude of upper front positioning existing basin, with a view to enlargement, as well as more advantageous uses of the network, and profitable in relation to the cost of use of the network. From a technical point of view, the network of lifting has been carried out between the existing and new pit they wanted to place it virtually. Whereas it is desirable to place a new water basin inside Holbav locality, in a wooded area, concerned into the forestry of this territorial administrative units will reach legal aspect. So for the area where it is desirable the location of water basin must be that this area will be taken permanently out of the forest, and for the surface where it will place new pipes must be temporarily out of forest fund(for the work of fitting and location). In conclusion, in order to achieve a work for the forestry sector must be attained both legal aspects of the job, but special attention should be paid totechnical aspect from the point of view of the difficulty with which can also be done from the point of view of accuracy which is difficult to attain.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Daniela TRANA

This project is about the improvement of traditional methods for surveying, documenting and WBE (Web-based Education) for Archaeological Sites and Cultural Landscapes & Heritage (CLH); especially by synergy effects gained by the combination of ICT low-cost techniques as innovative practices under digital Photogrammetry. I used the PhotoModeler Scanner , the Direct –Digital RECTifier, PhotoScan Pro (Agisoft) and the Calib softwares, in order to practice and manage to create the 3d model of a Egyptian Building façade, of a Monument, of the Pillar, Sarcophagus ,Lion Statue and the Sphinx Sculpture .

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Ana ALEXANDRU

Often, in practice, one reaches to incalculable integrals, but which can be approximated by numerical methods. In fact, in terms of application, there is no need for the exact result, but for knowing its value with an accuracy no matter how good. In this paper we present two methods to approximate Riemann integrals: the method of rectangles and trapezoids method. After reviewing the theoretical results, we consider some applications, focusing on the precision of approximations.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 3
Written by Catalin BOTEA, Daniel Ionut CARAMIDARU

The aim of this paper is to emphasize lower energy consumption in pump station that is equipped with variable speed pumps. This paper presents a comparison between different pump stations in terms specific energy consumption. We considered the following situations: adjusting the flow by valve and adjusting the flow by varying the speed. The study showed that pump station equipped with variable speed pumps are more efficient than the ones with fixed speed.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Monzer AL ISBER

The paper presents experimental reserch results during an industrial technological practice internship organized according to a pedagogical cooperation convention signed between the University of Balamand - Techological University Institute – Issam Fares, and University of Craiova. The paper presents relevant thermogrames obtained during experimental researches concerning both several new or old electromechanical products, and maintenance aspects, too. The thermogrames are in detailed explained considering the interdisciplinaries concepts concerning all the stages of electromechanicals produces making such as desinging, technological making process, assemling operations, quality control, maintenance aspects, and possible environmental impact aspects.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Dan Ilie BĂLEANU

The paper aims to present a short review regarding geosynthetics use for soil erosion control, as well as a case study about a landslides stabilization on side slopes using a modern solution based on geosynthetics in Galați area. The use of geosynthetics for soil erosion control and landslides stabilization, but not only, in close connection to environment protection, is being widely recognized mainly in the developed countries in the last years. As it is known, the geosynthetics have six main functions, namely: filtration, drainage, separation, reinforcement, fluid barrier, and protection. Particularly, in terms of soil erosion control, as well as mainly for landslides stabilization, there are used geogrids for soil and land reinforcement.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Ștefan-Silvian CIOBANU

Collapsible behaviour of loessoid soils in response to water content change is a worldwide problem. These soils are named problematic soils; they can generally be characterised as poor-quality materials. They usually have the potential to show undesirable engineering behaviour. Stabilisation is commonly used to improve the mechanical properties of these problematic soils.The main improvements aimed in the stabilization of collapsible soils are: reduction of supplementary settlement to wetting, increase of shear strength, reduction of permeability. The paper aimed to analyse the geotechnical characteristics of loessoid soils and to present the main improvement methods of these soils.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Bogdan DUMITRU

The author treats the particularities of land improvements area from the perspective of management science. This article aims to define the land reclamation works, specific issues and foreshadows some solutions and approaches from a managerial point of view meant to internalize the added value and competitive advantage. In the author's opinion, capitalizing the vast managerial experience from the last decades produced significant scientific accumulations regarding management of an organization based on concepts such as those related to performance, quality and environmental protection, etc . Therefore, a modern approach in tune with these requirements, makes the difference between a building well designed, efficient, economically profitable and one that is developing without perspective and without concern for control, performance and efficiency. At the end of the article the conclusion is that a quality management applied in the field of land reclamation works is a prerequisite for success. In order to achieve a higher performance there is a severe need for management. Therefore, management is the qualified process exercising the planning, organizing, coordinating, training and control without which you can’t provide decisions, so necessary, and, also, through which organisations from land reclamation domain are fulfilling their specific missions .

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Bogdan DUMITRU, Catalin BOTEA

Gully erosion initiation and evolution on agricultural torrential watersheds, as well as the prevention and their control works, represent a very complex process. Despite the fact that most of the gullies in such hilly areas have been partly or even totally stabilized in the past, today some of them continue reactivating in time, mainly on the gully bed due to several factors, among them being the poor maintenance of the anti-erosion works. The paper aims to present and analyze some practical aspects concerning gully erosion today’s evolution from one of the most affected area in Romania by soil erosion and landslides, the Subcarpathians Curvature. The research of the case study was carried out in the spring of the year 2014 in comparison with the reference year 1997in terms of gully evolution on Tatarului Valley.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Mihai FRÎNCU, Corina DUMITRACHE

Loess is a deposit of wind-blown silt that blankets large areas of the continents. It is often light brown in color, consisting predominantly of quartz, feldspars, micas, and calcium carbonate. Geographically, loess is extensive in the North American Great Plains, south-central Europe, central Asia, and central East of South America. In Europe, loess deposits are common in areas that lie between the former Alpine and the Scandinavian ice sheets and in regions to the east associated with major river systems. In Romania, loess was described by Gr Stefanescu in 1895 and the aeolian origin of the loess was stated for the first time by L. Mrazec, in 1899. Loessoid soils are very common in Romania, mainly in Dobrogea, Galati, Braila; they are found over some 19% of the area (Popescu, 1965). The aim of this paper considers the main topics of loess distribution, different hypotheses of its origin and geological characterization of these problematic soils.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Marius GRUIA

Romanian earthquakes since 1940 and 1977 have produced severe damages to a significant number of RC framed buildings whose plans were characterized predominantly by irregularities like flexible diaphragms, structural discontinuities or L or H shapes, among others. These conceptual characteristics contributed in a decisive way to the damage or collapse of buildings designed and built according to old seismic codes.On the other hand, European and internationalexperience of the past strong earthquakes during last decades shows that, in many urban areas besides many old building, there is a number of modern RC buildings that do not meet the requirements of additionally improved Codes for seismic resistant design. The paper presentssome types of structural interventions on buildings and solutions for determine the dynamic building response. On basis of dynamic response recorded for buildings, a methodology for analyzing the structural behavior of this typology of buildings by adequatesoftware for 3D seismic analyzing is presented. For this purpose non-destructive and geodynamic methods were used. The non-destructive methods are based on auscultation, ultrasound and percussion with Schmidt hammer, and the geodynamic methods are based on the GEODAS equipment with Microwave software.The results proved that the mass and stiffness is not always beneficial and also emphasizes the role of geometry on dynamic response of building.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Paul MĂRGINAŞ, Ervin SCHLESINGER

This study has as its purpose finding and presentation of the most effective ways of improving and protection of the embankments afferent to national road 17 – Tihuţa Gorge, perimeter situated in Bistriţa-Năsăud and Suceava counties. The main causes leading to the destruction of land are represented on the one hand by natural setting’s characteristics of the perimeter: uneven relief with high pitch, heavy textured soil and damp climate, and on the other hand by misuse of land and deforestation. The prerequisite for improving these downgraded lands are restoration of the vegetation and resonable use of it, prerequisite on which the choice of the improving actions and works is based on. The improving actions are: usage restrictions (grazing ban), exploitation rules, perimeter security, the installation of panels, and the improvement works are: phytoimproving measures (afforestation), soil preparation and improvement works (fertilization and amendation works), soil arrange works (draining). Afforestation is the main path to follow in downgraded land contention. The actual surface intended for afforestation from this perimeter Tihuţa-Colibiţa is 80% of downgraded lands from this perimeter.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Gavril MOIŞAN, Ionuța OLTEAN

Soil erosion is one of the greatest problem in agriculture, forestry and town-planning. Due to the continuous population growth towns are in a complex process of expansion, but when town expansion meets extreme deep soil erosion phenomena, this impediment is not only economical but also a social one and that is why gullies must be studied and monitored. This study is based on finding the technical data which defines the gully located in Cluj-Napoca in the La Cariera area and giving the solutions in order to stop the erosion, stabilize the gully and forecast its future behavior. The gully studied in this article is situated in the vicinity of the city of Cluj-Napoca and it is particularly important because in 10 years the city boundaries will overpass it and so these soil erosion phenomena must be integrated in the anthropic landscape.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by George Narcis PELEA, Ciprian BALAJ, Mariana TĂMAŞ

This paper aims to present the main features of a local sprinkler irrigation system in the draining unit Răuţi – Sânmihaiu German, Timiş county, using wastewater storage tanks from pig breeding complex Cenei that are transformed in water reservoirs used for application of irrigation on a land area of 450 ha. The paper presents the pumping station, adduction from the river Bega-Veche, the storage tanks, the high pressure pumping station, the piping network for irrigation and the irrigation equipment.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Mariana TĂMAŞ, George Narcis PELEA, Ciprian BALAJ, Gabriel LEUCUŢA

To comply with national and European legislation on waste management in Caraș-Severin county is necessary to implement an integrated waste management system. This implies the existence of an institutional structure at county level: establishment of Intercommunity Development Association, Project Implementation Unit, which ensure implementation of the project: building ecological central warehouse and three transfer stations, closure of rural and urban non-compliant deposits. The total costs of the project funded through the FEADR, state and local budget, is 18.639.807.000 lei, and the implementation period is 2012-2015.

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Published in Scientific Papers. Series "Journal of Young Scientist", Vol. 2
Written by Iulia Diana GLIGA

The present paper aims to evaluate the outcome and the progress of the ecological reconstruction works carried out in the old stand of the Pietrosul Rodnei massive by analyzing the variance for the main morphometrical characters of the installed seedlings. The afforestation composition was represented mainly by the Pinus cembra seedlings. In order to achieve the above mentioned target, one used the grid method to set up sample surfaces of 200 m2, realized the inventory of seedlings for each sample area and carried out the following measurements: the overall height of the seedlings, their growth recorded during the 2012-2013 vegetation season and their stem base diameter. The results of the measurements were statistically processed by calculating the coefficients of variation for different characters, as well as correlations between elements, the regression equations and by calculating the coefficient of regression. After analyzing the registered data, one concluded that all elements present a high and very high variability of the characters, due to the genetic diversity of origins, therefore the future of the newly installed stand is ensured and a proper and successful selection of tree can be performed + improving all analyzed characters, highlighting the elites and increasing the value of the stand. Following the performed correlations, one noticed a direct and distinct significant link between the height of seedlings and their stem base diameter. The differences between the average growth of the two analyzed seasons are differentiated on sample groups of sample markets. After carrying out the research and analyzing the obtained results, one can conclude the success and the opportunity of restoring old stands, as well as the ecological reconstruction of the area studied.

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